Basic Usage¶

rapidStats¶

Basic statistics calculation like analyzing read counts, distribution of reads on the two DNA strands and listing smallRNA modifications stratified by the defined regions are done using this script.

Input¶

• Trimmed sequence file (FASTQ) or an alignment file (BAM/SAM)
• BED file containing the localization and names of genes/regions to be quantified

We generate the alignments with bowtie2, if FASTQ files are provided as input. A two step alignment can also be performed, if necessary. i.e. First, to remove the sequences aligning to contaminants, and then aligning the rest of the sequences against the reference genome. To facilitate these alignments, bowtie2 index files should be provided against the respective input parameters along with the FASTQ file. We then subject the aligned files to quantify the read counts for the regions provided in the BED file. This quantification step provides an output file containing the read counts of various read lengths, modification, strandedness, etc.

Sample script¶

If using a previously aligned BAM file:

./rapidStats.sh -o=/path_to_output_directory/ -f=reads.bam -ft=BAM --remove=no -a=file.bed -r=/rapidPath/

If using a fastq file, and wish to quantify multiple BED files. Results will be stored in separate folders with each annotation file’s name:

./rapidStats.sh -o=/path_to_output_directory/ -f=reads.fq -a=file.bed,file2.bed -i=/path_to_index -r=/rapidPath/

If using a fastq file, and wish to perform a two-step alignment:

./rapidStats.sh -o=/path_to_output_directory/ -f=reads.fq -a=file.bed -i=/path_to_index --contamin=yes --indexco=/path_to_contaminants_index -r=/rapidPath/

The different parameters we provide currently are listed below.

short long params explanation
-h –help show the help on screen
-o –out path to the output directory, directory will be created if non-existent
-f –file path to the read fastq/BAM/SAM file
-ft –filetype BAM/SAM/fq : Mention either BAM/SAM or FASTQ. Default FASTQ
-a –annot bed file with regions that should be annotated with read alignments (Multiple Bed files should be separated by commas)
-r –rapid set location of the rapid installation bin folder (e.g. /home/software/RAPID/bin/) if not in PATH
-i –index set location of the bowtie2 index for alignment
-p –proc An INTEGER for number of processors; for bowtie’s use (default: 4)
-m –multi An INTEGER for number of alignments to report. ‘-k’ param of bowtie2 (default: 100)
–contamin=yes use a double alignment step first aligning to a contamination file (default no)
–indexco set location of the contamination bowtie2 index for alignment (only with contamin=yes)
–remove=yes remove unecessary intermediate files (default yes)

Bed file format (Do not provide a header, its shown here only for clarity)¶

chromosome start end geneName type strand (Gene Direction)
chr1 1234 1368 geneA region +
chr2 1234 1368 geneB region -
chr2 1432 1568 geneB region -
chr3 1234 1368 geneC background -

The column type in the Bed file says whether a gene has to be treated as background (knockdown) or not during normalizations.

rapidNorm¶

Normalization module aims to facilitate the comparison of genes across various samples, and vice versa. As sequencing depth differs across samples, the read counts have to be normalized. RAPID facilitates two kinds of normalization. (i) DESeq2 based, and (ii) a variant of Total Count Scaling (TCS) method to account for the knockdown associated smallRNAs inherent in sequencing. For a detailed description of the normalization strategy, please have a look at the bioarXiv.

By default, RAPID uses the modified TCS based normalization method. However, in order to provide flexibility with the choice of normalization, we have also incorporated the DESeq2 based normalization. If an user can safely assume that most of the genes between samples are not differentially expressed, in a small RNA based study, then they can use the DESeq2 based normalization.

Input¶

• BED file containing the localization and names of genes/regions to be compared. Care should be taken to include only the gene/regions which were quantified in rapidStats
• Config file containing the location of rapidStats output folders

Sample script:¶

If normalizing using the TCS based normalization:

./rapidNorm.sh --out=/path_to_output_directory/ --conf=data.config --annot=regions.bed --rapid=/rapidPath/

If normalizing using the DESeq2 based normalization:

./rapidNorm.sh --out=/path_to_output_directory/ --conf=data.config --annot=regions.bed --rapid=/rapidPath/ -d=T

If normalizing using the TCS based scaling, while considering only reads of length 23bp, and 25bp:

./rapidNorm.sh --out=/path_to_output_directory/ --conf=data.config --annot=regions.bed --rapid=/rapidPath/ -l=23,25
short long params explanation
-h –help output help
-o –out path to the output directory, directory will be created if non-existent
-c –conf the config file that defines which rapidStats analysis folders should be used
-a –annot bed file with regions that should be used for the comparison, this must be a subset of the regions that was used for rapidStats calls
-r –rapid set location of the rapid installation bin folder (e.g. /home/software/RAPID/bin/) or put into PATH variable
-d –deseq LOGICAL value. Use only TRUE or FALSE. Set this to TRUE, if you wish to use DESeq2 based normalization. Default is FALSE, which does a total count based scaling.
-l –restrictlength An INTEGER of Read Lengths to be considered. If not provided, all reads will be used. (Multiple read lengths should be separated by commas)”

The config file is a simple tab-delimited file that has three columns, the path to the folder produced by rapidStats, the name of the experiment, and list of regions need to be corrected in TCS based normalization. Each line is one dataset that should be included in the Normalization. Later these normalized statistics can be used to make comparison plots using rapidVis.

Config file format¶

location name background
/Control1/ Ctrl1 none
/Control2/ Ctrl2 none
/Condition1/ Cond1 geneA,geneB
/Condition2/ Cond2 none

geneA,geneB - Gene names provided as background should be same as provided in the rapidStats bed file.

rapidVis¶

The visualization module of RAPID is a simple R script, which creates informative plots from the output of rapidStats, and rapidNorm.

Input¶

• Path of the output folder from rapidStats, and rapidNorm
• BED file containing the localization and names of genes/regions need to be visualized. Care should be taken to include only the gene/regions which were quantified in rapidStats

Sample script:¶

Generic Format:

Rscript rapidVis.r <plotMethod> <outputfolder> <annotationfile> <rapidPath>

If you want to plot rapidStats output:

Rscript ${rapidPath}/rapidVis.r stats /path_to_output_directory_rapidStats/ regions.bed <$rapid>

If you want to plot rapidNorm output:

Rscript ${rapidPath}/rapidVis.r compare /path_to_output_directory_rapidNorm/ <$rapid>
arguments explanation
plotMethod stats OR compare-use stats to visualize rapidStats or use compare to visualize results of rapidNorm
out outputFolder_of_rapidStats.sh or rapidNorm.sh (Where Statistics and other files are located)
annot Annotation file similar to BED file given in rapidStats
rapidPath Must provide the location of the rapid installation bin folder (e.g. /home/software/RAPID/bin/)

rapidDiff¶

This module of RAPID implements DESeq2 software and generate basic graphs to highlight the differentially expressed gene/region among the samples.

Input¶

• Path of the output folder from rapidStats
• Config file describing the DESeq2 analysis setup

Sample script:¶

Generic Format:

./rapidDiff.sh --out=complete/path/outputDirectory/ --conf=data.config

If a different q-value cut-off is required:

./rapidDiff.sh --out=complete/path/outputDirectory/ --conf=data.config --alpha=0.01
If only reads of length 23bp, and 25bp should be considered: ::
./rapidDiff.sh –out=complete/path/outputDirectory/ –conf=data.config –alpha=0.01 -l=23,25
short long params explanation
-h –help output help
-o –out path to the output directory, directory will be created if non-existent
-c –conf the config file that defines which rapidStats analysis folders should be used for extracting the raw counts of gene/regions analyzed
-a –alpha qValue (adjusted p-value) cut-off to highlight in MA-Plot. Default is 0.05
-n –nVal Top ‘n’ values to be shown as heatmap. The top ‘n’ values are chosen in ascending order of qValue
-r –rapid set location of the rapid installation bin folder (e.g. /home/software/RAPID/bin/) or put into PATH variable
-l –restrictlength An INTEGER of Read Lengths to be considered (Default: All). Separate multiple values by commas.

Config file format¶

sampleName location condition
Control1 Ctrl1 untreated
Condition1 Cond1 treated

This config file is a simple tab-delimited file that has three columns, with the same headers as mentioned in the above format.

sampleName tells the name to be used in the analysis output. location tells the location of rapidStats analysis folders should be used for extracting the raw counts of gene/regions analyzed (USE ONLY ABSOLUTE PATH) condition tells whether the sample is untreated or treated sample. For example, Use treated drug treated cancerous samples and untreated for cancer samples.